Space Heating Systems
Varying in design, efficiency and capacity, electric heating systems provide space heating, water heating (domestic, swimming pool, etc.), sterilization and other process heating needs. Often combined with space cooling systems, electric-powered heating systems offer the advantages of lower equipment and maintenance costs as well as safety and cleanliness.
Electrical Resistance Space Heating Equipment
Space heating equipment can generate significant energy and cost savings when compared to central systems, particularly when areas are used only on an occasional basis.
Some electric resistance space heating systems permit room by room or space-by-space (zoned) control. Compared to central systems, they can afford significant energy and cost savings, particularly when spaces are used only on an occasional basis. Central heating systems must heat all spaces served to the level required by those in use. Time controls, personnel detection controls and other devices can also be employed. Typical zoned space heating equipment includes baseboard units, wall units, unit heaters, duct insert heaters, furnaces, portables, ceiling units, and insulated conductors embedded in ceiling or floor. Here are several options for electric resistance space heating.
Space Heating Equipment – Wall Units:
These heaters may be flush-mounted or recessed, and use a radiant or ceramic panel, heating coils, or other form of heating clement. They come with or without a built-in fan and thermostat. These units are often used for spot heating in areas such as building entrances and where higher temperatures are needed.
Space Heating Equipment – Ceiling Units:
These are similar to the wall units in type, but designed for ceiling installation. Units may include lighting devices (e.g., restrooms).
Space Heating Equipment – Baseboard:
These units are installed along the base of a wall, and have relatively unrestricted length, providing a more distributed source of heat. Various types of heating elements are available in baseboard equipment.
Space Heating Equipment – Deep Heat System:
These systems are used in northern climates where it may be effective to bury electric heaters in a sand bed beneath the concrete floor of the warehouse, commercial space, or garage. These large thermal masses can often be heated during the off-peak period to provide economical space heat during occupied hours. Since most people are more comfortable when their feet are warm, these systems have also been reported to provide very pleasant work environments even in the most extreme of weather conditions.
Space Heating Equipment – Duct Insert Heater:
Here heating elements inserted in the ducts of forced air heating systems,either at the fan location or near supply air outlets. Heaters may be step-controlled in accordance with amount of heat needed. Automatic safety cut-offs interrupt current on either over-temperature of unit or fan failure.
Space Heating Equipment – Heating Cable:
These are insulated resistance heating elements manufactured in various lengths and wattage’s and are suitable for installation in ceiling plaster or in/under concrete slabs. This method of heating evenly distributes the heat source and produces a low temperature radiant heat surface. This method has been used in large open buildings such as warehouses, garages, hangars, etc.
Space Heating Equipment – Unit Heaters:
These heating elements are used with a fan or blower to force air into the conditioned space. Certain types are classified as heater-ventilators and perform the function of both controlled heating and ventilating. These units have been used primarily in school room heating, but can be used for many commercial/industrial applications where ventilation is required.
Space Heating Equipment – Infrared Radiant Heaters:
These heaters generate infrared radiation, heating all objects in their “line of sight,” or radiation path. Equipment is available with either metal sheath enclosed element, quartz tubes, and reflector lamps. They are all used with a directional reflector. Infrared heating is used in areas where heating the entire space through convection would be difficult or expensive in comparison to keeping people comfortable such as warehouses, garages, etc.
Electric Radiant Heating Panels and Heating Panel Sets:
These low density radiant heaters which can be mounted in wall or ceiling to provide spot heating.